Composite Floor Deck
Composite flooring system is a flooring system used in multiplex constructions , on which live loads are carried. The system might be classified in two groups in terms of operating principles:
1- Composite Floorings
2- Composite Beams
This flooring system is constituted by pouring concrete over corrugated steel sheet in steel constructions. In order to form composite flooring, a corrugated steel sheet with specific geometric feature, which can be named as composite panel, is required. This geometric feature is the slipping offsets on the body of the corrugated steel sheet. Slipping force is transferred between concrete and steel sheet by means of these offsets, which allows steel sheet to contribute to composite flooring strength. Otherwise, it shall only serve as a mold.
Composite flooring, constituted over steel beams, are fixed on steel beams via studs. The studs transfer the slipping force emerging between composite flooring and steel beams, and allow joint operation of concrete with steel beam.
Considering transverse section stress distribution in this manner, in a component with torsion tendency, pressure component of moment force couple is compensated by the upper concrete, whereas drawing component is compensated by steel beam. In this manner, concrete and steel carry the load components suitable with their own structures.
Composite flooring effect increases moment carrying capacity of steel beams. Taking composite flooring effect into consideration, prevents concrete serving only as a load, and transforms it into a component jointly operating with steel. This provides up to 40% saving in steel beams.
In order to realize this effect, it is required to maintain required interaction between composite flooring and steel beam by using studs, gaps and number of which are determined by a specific calculation method. If studs are not used, when horizontal forces like earthquakes effect the construction required rigid diaphragm effect of flooring might not be maintained on the construction. This causes the construction to make more lateral displacement than expected, and increases the effect of lateral loads.